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With conflicting budget estimates, will Texas teachers get the pay raises they anticipated?

When state lawmakers passed their landmark $11.6 billion school finance law in late May, school employees were eager to see how mandatory raises would affect their paychecks.

A month later, they’re scratching their heads, struggling to decipher complicated changes and conflicting financial estimates that might not net teachers as much money as they expected.

Before lawmakers voted nearly unanimously to approve House Bill 3, which drastically overhauled Texas’ outdated school funding system, they received estimates from the state on how much additional money each of their school districts would likely receive over the next two years. But the estimates came with a warning: They could change significantly once the calculations were performed using local data.

Ahead of the upcoming school year, districts are now redoing those calculations themselves — and some are coming up short. That could pose a problem for teachers, nurses, counselors and librarians, since under HB 3, school districts are supposed to use a portion of the new money on those employees’ raises and benefits. (School boards must approve their budgets by either a June 30 or an Aug. 31 deadline.)

Georgetown ISD, for example, is projecting $5.9 million in new money in the upcoming school year, much less than the $10.3 million state estimate. And it will shell out about $9 million in recapture payments, which the state takes from wealthier districts to subsidize poorer ones — not the $3.5 million the state estimated in May.

Cypress-Fairbanks ISD, a large suburban district in the Houston area, should’ve expected $30 million more in the upcoming school year, according to the state estimates. But school board members approved a budget in late June that projected just $14 million more, according to Karen Smith, the district’s chief financial officer.

To remain competitive as employers, both districts are going beyond the state’s requirement to use 30% of the new money to increase salaries and benefits. Georgetown ISD is including $3,000 raises for teachers, counselors, librarians and nurses with more than five years of experience. Cypress-Fairbanks ISD approved a budget millions of dollars in the red that includes $25.4 million in raises for classroom teachers, librarians, counselors and nurses and $10.8 million in raises for all other employees.

Teacher pay raises quickly became a bipartisan rallying cry during the 2019 legislative session that finished up in May. But instead of the statewide $5,000 raisemany teachers advocated for from the get-go, lawmakers approved a set of guidelines for salary bumps that would end up leaving the dollar amounts largely up to district leaders.

There is not yet an official statewide summary on what compensation packages look like across school districts, but eventually districts will be required to report that information to the Legislature. Meanwhile, the state has been providing guidance on how to interpret the new law through videos and PowerPoint presentations.

Without an across-the-board pay raise mandate from the state, teachers and other school employees have been looking left and right at neighboring school districts to judge how they’re going to fare. Some report having heard nothing from their school districts so far this summer, as they anxiously monitor the news from across the state.

Sunnyvale ISD Superintendent Doug Williams found that the state’s calculation for how much more his tiny school district would receive was pretty accurate: just under $600,000. But school districts in the vicinity, which include large, urban Dallas ISD, are getting millions more, meaning they’ll be required to offer bigger raises.

To stay competitive, Sunnyvale ISD’s school board approved larger pay raises than required by law, ranging from $1,800 for beginning teachers to $2,700 for the most experienced. “We have been blessed to be able to attract and retain great teachers,” Williams said. “We just want to make sure we are able to continue.”

In some school districts, local teachers’ unions and associations are butting heads with administrators as they advocate for higher raises and larger employer contributions to health insurance. After adopting a budget with 5% raises, Laredo ISD’s officials told frustrated teachers they are waiting for more guidance from the state before they consider raising salaries further.

In Houston ISD, the teachers union successfully threatened a no-confidence voteagainst the superintendent if trustees didn’t pass a budget with pay raises by later this month, arguing the delay would make them less competitive for hiring. After a contentious meeting, the board ultimately approved a deficit budget containing raises of 3.5% to 8%, depending on school employees’ experience levels. The budget also increased the minimum wage for school employees by $2 an hour.

For third grade writing teacher Huyenchau Vu, who watched the Legislature’s initial proposal for $5,000 raises dissolve, a 3.5% raise means a boost of less than $2,000 a year and less than $100 per paycheck. “It goes back into paying for everything, not necessarily into a savings account,” said Vu, who just finished teaching summer school at Houston ISD and will start her third year teaching in August.

She and her colleagues have been taking notes about the higher starting salaries and raises for Houston-area districts such as Aldine ISD and Alief ISD, but not necessarily because they’re trying to jump ship. While Vu would appreciate more money, she is also worried about the sustainability of the Legislature’s funding increase and is glad Houston ISD appears to be more “realistic” in its budgeting decisions than its neighbors.

“They’re paying their teachers a lot more knowing it’s just over the next two years that we’re receiving money from the state of Texas to put into these teacher salaries,” she said. “After that, no one’s sure what’s going to happen.”

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Author: ALIYYA SWABY – The Texas Tribune

Report: Many Texas teachers moonlight to make ends meet

AUSTIN – A new report puts a spotlight on the economic stress facing people who choose a career in teaching.

According to the Economic Policy Institute, nearly six out of ten teachers nationwide turn to “moonlighting” or side jobs to supplement their income and, in some cases, just to make ends meet.

Clay Robison, public affairs specialist at the Texas State Teachers Association, sees a direct connection between the current teacher shortage and poor teacher pay, which forces a majority to take on second and even third jobs.

“Because they’re not paid enough,” Robison said. “And they have families to support, mortgages to pay, car payments to make – like other professionals do – but they’re not paid professional salaries.”

Robison pointed to a recent survey showing that most teachers forced to moonlight said the extra hours negatively impact their performance in the classroom.

He added that the teacher shortage already is having an impact. Of the state’s 350,000 teachers in the 2017-2018 school year, he noted some 32,000 were not properly certified for the subjects they teach.

The report’s authors emphasized that moonlighting gigs are not extra summer or holiday jobs, but work that happens in addition to a teacher’s regular schedule.

When teachers are burning the candle at both ends, Robison said, it also creates a retention problem. School districts spend an average of $21,000 for each new teacher they recruit and train. It is money the report concludes could be spent on other priorities, including raising teacher pay.

As Robison observed, “It’s probably easier to put up with, say, maybe a principal whom you have difficulty working with if you’re making $65,000 or $70,000 a year than if you’re making $40,000 a year.”

He said parents and entire communities are affected when teachers – and school systems – don’t get the support they need.

The report notes that teachers play a critical role in society, in part because teaching is the single occupation upon which all other occupations are built.

Author: Eric Galatas – Texas News Service

Texas Sen. Larry Taylor unveils new school finance bill, adding $5k teacher pay raise

After a long wait, the Texas Senate has finally unveiled a thorough proposal for how to tackle school finance and school property tax reform — bringing back several ideas the House already nixed.

State Sen. Larry Taylor, R-Friendswood, explained the proposal in the Senate Education Committee on Thursday but said the committee he chairs would not vote on it until next week, giving lawmakers more time to workshop it. Many items in the bill come from a state school finance panel that met last year to determine recommendations for a public education overhaul this session.

“This bill implements every student-outcomes-oriented transformational reform and almost all the finance reforms offered by the school finance commission,” Taylor said. “These changes significantly improve equity in the system.”

The House earlier this month nearly unanimously passed House Bill 3, its take on school finance legislation, after months of public hearings and rewrites. Taylor released an unfinished version of Senate Bill 4 in early March, which was not revised until this week. Taylor said he plans to put the new language in HB 3.

Like the House’s plan, the new Senate version would raise the base funding per student, which hasn’t budged in four years, and would provide money for free full-day pre-K for low-income students. The Senate’s base increase is smaller than the House’s, upping the number by $740 per student — instead of $890 — from $5,140. Any increase would help mitigate the negative financial effects of the unpopular recapture program, known as “Robin Hood,” which requires wealthier districts to help subsidize poor districts with lower property values.

It includes a $5,000 teacher pay raise for classroom teachers and librarians, originally passed unanimously on the Senate floor in Senate Bill 3 in early March. This would cost about $4 billion and is accounted for in the Senate’s proposed budget.

Teacher pay has been a divisive issue between the House and the Senate, with the Senate prioritizing directed raises and the House giving districts more flexibility to spend additional money as they choose. The House passed a version of its school finance bill that would give all school employees across-the-board raises of about $1,388 on average statewide and designate additional money for raises to be given at districts’ discretion.

The new Senate version includes a few items the House has since removed from its school finance legislation, mainly tying a portion of school district funding to test scores. Proponents of so-called “outcomes-based funding” argue it will incentivize districts to better prepare students academically; opponents say it would attach higher stakes to standardized tests.

School districts could get between $1,000 and $4,000 per student based on the number of third graders who do well either on the state’s standardized test or an alternative test chosen by the state. They also could get between $3,000 and $5,000 per student based on the number of students who graduated ready for college, a career or the military. In both cases, districts with more high-achieving low-income students would get more money.

The chambers have also differed on merit pay for teachers. The House removed a portion that would provide money for districts that wanted to rate their teachers and provide the top-rated ones with more money.

Teachers unions and associations have argued the provision would open the door to districts rating teachers based on state standardized test scores, attaching higher stakes to flawed tests.

The Senate’s version appears to require school districts to use metrics beyond just standardized test scores to rate their teachers. And it would pay districts more to recruit high-rated teachers to struggling schools as a way to turn them around — modeled on a Dallas ISD program that Abbott has touted.

It would address some of the problems with the STAAR standardized test, which has lately come under renewed scrutiny, with researchers and advocates arguing it doesn’t adequately measure students’ reading abilities. The bill proposes breaking the STAAR up into smaller tests and developing a new alternative pilot assessment.

“In the next three to five years, we’ll be moving to an online version, a shorter version that doesn’t have to disrupt the day, and we’re not going to allow tests on Mondays,” Taylor said. He said that students would be more ready to take a test on other days during the week, especially if teachers have the opportunity to prepare them the day before.

The Senate’s bill also includes a controversial proposal to calculate school funding using property values from the current year — instead of the prior year, as the school finance system now works. Although this idea was originally pitched by a panel of educators and lawmakers studying changes to the school finance system, many education advocates and superintendents have since lobbied against it. They argue that using property values from the previous year to calculate school funding allows the state to certify those numbers, giving school districts more predictability in their budgets.

Taylor said Thursday that the bill includes more money for fast-growing districts, which are more likely to be negatively impacted by the switch to current-year values.

The bill includes a few mechanisms for reining in school district taxes, dependent after the first year on a long-shot proposal to increase the sales tax 1 percentage point to raise money long term.

Those mechanisms include expanding an exemption homeowners are entitled to receive on the value of their homes for school district taxes from $25,000 to $40,000.

Starting in 2023, the bill would also limit the growth in school districts’ revenue due to rising property values, a proposal pitched before session began by Gov. Greg Abbott and since renewed by Sen. Paul Bettencourt, R-Houston. School districts that see their property values significantly increase would have their tax rates automatically reduced to keep tax revenue growth in line. The state would be on the hook for the extra money the districts are entitled to.

The Senate proposal would lower school district taxes by 8 cents per $100 valuation in the first year and 15 cents total every year after that, bringing the minimum tax rate for most school districts from $1 to 85 cents per $100 valuation. This would save the owner of a $250,000 home $200 in the first year and $375 in future years. School districts would be limited in how they could raise taxes in the first couple of years.

State Sen. Paul Bettencourt, R-Houston, said he had “great concerns” about the sales tax swap as a way to raise money for future years. Raising the sales tax by 1 percentage point, as pitched by top state leaders, would raise about $5 billion in additional money to help provide school district property tax relief.

He instead listed a few ideas that he said could raise twice as much combined, including diverting severance taxes from oil production and collecting money from an online sales tax.

“We’ve never had a swap that’s worked,” he said.

Lt. Gov. Dan Patrick, the Senate’s president, later distanced himself from Bettencourt’s position.

“The Senate is looking at all revenues sources to reduce property taxes, including a sales tax swap. [Bettencourt’s] comments in opposition to a sales tax are his own,” Patrick said on Twitter.

Taylor also later said he disagreed with Bettencourt about the sales tax swap.

“I don’t have a problem with it,” Taylor said. “People can control their purchases. They can’t control their property taxes.”

Though hailed by top Republican leaders as key to this session’s school finance and property tax reform, the sales tax swap faces steep odds in both chambers, with some conservatives and Democrats in opposition.

Read related Tribune coverage

Author:  ALIYYA SWABYThe Texas Tribune

The 86th Legislature runs from Jan. 8 to May 27. From the state budget to health care to education policy — and the politics behind it all — we focus on what Texans need to know about the biennial legislative session.


Texas Schools that Want to Arm their Employees Have Two Choices

Following a deadly mass shooting at Santa Fe High School, Gov. Greg Abbott rolled out a 40-page plan to keep schools safe.

Proposals ranged from beefing up existing mental health screening programs to encouraging voluntary use of gun locks at home, but one component seemed to divide lawmakers, districts and Texas schools: arming school employees.

If Texas schools want to arm their staffs, they have two options. One is the Marshal Program, which Abbott proposed using state funds to help schools implement. It allows local school boards to authorize employees to carry a handgun on campus, but they must be specially trained and licensed by the Texas Commission on Law Enforcement. Under the program, armed school personnel can’t carry firearms around students.

The other option was already around when then-Gov. Rick Perry signed the Marshal Program into law in 2012. Created by Harrold Independent School District Superintendent David Thweatt in 2007, the Guardian Plan allows local school boards to determine training standards and authorize specific employees to carry on campus at all times.

Here are four things to know about the two existing plans that allow school districts to arm their employees:

The Marshal Program creates a new kind of peace officer

For districts that choose to adopt the Marshal Program, teachers and other school staff members who undergo the required training are taught to act as armed security officers — or peace officers — in the absence of law enforcement.

“The Marshal Program is about creating an entirely new class of peace officers — certified and [Texas Commission on Law Enforcement] trained — who can act in a moment of crisis to disable and neutralize an active shooter,” said state Rep. Jason Villalba, the Dallas Republican who authored the bill that created the Texas school marshal program Abbott wants to expand. “That’s why the program is so starkly different than what Mr. Thweatt calls the guardian plan.”

The Guardian Plan, on the other hand, lets school staff carry guns with or without marshal training. It doesn’t train school personnel as peace officers, but lets them carry their weapons as long as they undergo district-specific training and have a handgun license. And it doesn’t have a maximum requirement for how many teachers can be armed, unlike the Marshal Program which lets schools only designate one employee a marshal for every 400 students.

Despite the differences in approach for the two plans, they both aim to mitigate tragedies in the event an active shooter comes on campus grounds.

“That’s the reason we’re doing it, and I think we can do that because they’re not going to know from where our particular defense is going to come,” Thweatt said.

“When [an active shooter] comes to the school, they’re going to get swarmed from multiple directions,” he added. “Armed shooters go where they know there’s going to be little resistance, but if they don’t know where they’re going to get resistance, they’re not going to come to our schools.”

Rural districts are more likely to adopt one of the plans

More than 200 of Texas’ 1,000-plus school districts have adopted one of two programs. And a majority of those districts tend to be in rural communities, according to Dax Gonzalez, a spokesman for the Texas Association of School Boards.

“Generally speaking, districts with police departments … do not tend to allow staff to carry firearms,” Gonzalez said. “Those 217 are likely smaller, more rural districts that feel they cannot be serviced by local law enforcement quickly enough.”

Villalba told POLITICO in February that he believes anywhere between 20 to 50 districts have adopted the marshal program. At least 172 Texas districts have adopted the Guardian Plan.

Training and gun storage requirements vary

Arguably one of the biggest differences between the two programs is different requirements for teachers or other employees who want to carry a gun.

Marshals have to receive 80 training hours and keep their firearms under lock and key. The Guardian Plan, on the other hand, lets teachers keep their firearm with them at all times — as long as they have a concealed handgun license and go through 15 to 20 hours of training.

It’s worth noting that these requirements could change, however. Abbott previously proposed streamlining the training course under the Marshal Program — which he called “burdensome”— and eliminating the lockbox requirement.

Villalba was critical of Abbott’s tweaks to the Marshal Program, saying that parents might be upset if teachers didn’t have to lock up their weapons.

But several Texas Republicans, including Jerry Patterson, Texas’ former land commissioner who helped get the state’s concealed handgun law passed in 1995, say the lockbox requirement does more harm than good.

“The lockbox requirement is silly. The gun needs to be carried on the person and accessible immediately,” Patterson said. “Not where you have to run to the office, go through a combination and then get the gun. If you carry it all the time, you won’t lose the weapon.”

Individuals schools and districts that adopt the Guardian Plan are also allowed to choose their own training requirements. At Harrold ISD, for example, employees who choose to carry go through at least 15 hours of training that includes videos of hostage scenarios and shooting drills. Fayetteville ISD, which adopted the plan in February, doesn’t require a specific amount of firearms training (though most staff do around 20 hours per year). And at Keene ISD, which adopted the Guardian Plan in 2016, Superintendent Ricky Stephens previously told The Texas Tribune he requires staff to undergo 80 hours of initial training and 40 hours annually after that.

Only one plan receives money from the state

To adopt either plan, districts have to find a way to pay for training, purchase firearms and ammunition and, in some cases, a lock box.

But only the Marshal Program has received state funding to help pay for those expenses.

When the Marshal Program was first signed into law, the state had a grant program in place to help districts cover training costs. But that money ran out and funding has not been reauthorized. That’s why Abbott proposed that the state pay for school marshal training this summer to ease the burden on individual districts.

Funding for the Guardian Plan was notably missing from the governor’s proposal, however. Instead of getting approval from the Legislature, authorization for the plan is outlined under the Texas Government Code, which lets certain school district employees who have a handgun license to carry their weapon.

Since there’s no legislative recognition of the Guardian Plan, Thweatt said, districts that adopt the plan have to pay for it themselves. Thweatt said Harrold ISD reimburses employees who participate for the cost of guns, ammunition and training.

“I’ve never received any funding [from the state] for the Guardian Plan,” Thweatt said.

Note: This story was inspired by a discussion on education policy happening now in our Facebook group, This is Your Texas. Sign up here to join the conversation.

Disclosure: The Texas Association of School Boards has been a financial supporter of The Texas Tribune, a nonprofit, nonpartisan news organization that is funded in part by donations from members, foundations and corporate sponsors. Financial supporters play no role in the Tribune’s journalism. Find a complete list of them here.

Author: ALEX SAMUELS – The Texas Tribune

Texas Law Blocks Teachers From Striking for Better Pay, Benefits

AUSTIN – Statistics out this week show that teachers’ salaries in Texas now rank among the bottom third of all 50 states.

Although teachers in West Virginia, Oklahoma and Arizona have walked out or are preparing to walk out of the classroom in protest, the more than 350,000 public school teachers in Texas don’t have that option – it’s against the law for them to strike. Monty Exter, a lobbyist with the Association of Texas Professional Educators, said Texas teachers not only face low salaries, but also benefits such as health insurance and pensions that are some of the poorest in the country.

“When you look at just salaries in Texas, we are pretty much in the middle of all states in a ranking, but we are still about $6,000 below the national average,” Exter said. “The main issue for teachers in Texas is our non-salary compensation is ranked 50th out of 50.”

While underpaid instructors in other states have organized to pressure lawmakers in an effort to get better compensation, officials say most Texas teachers would lose their jobs if they went on strike. In 2017, the Texas Legislature failed to pass an education funding reform package that would have provided teacher raises, instead concentrating on a failed attempt to pass private school vouchers.

Clay Robison, public affairs specialist with the Texas State Teachers Association, said while they can’t join them on the picket lines, Texas educators back educators’ efforts in other states to fight for better pay and benefits.

“We strongly support our colleagues in Arizona and the other states where they have been walking out over poor salaries, poor education funding, and in some cases, they’ve been walking out to protect their pensions,” Robison said.

Exter said the best place for teachers to bring change to Texas schools is at the ballot box.

“When you look at educators in Texas and you add in the retired education community, you’re talking about more than a million people,” Exter said. “And if all those folks voted, they could essentially, probably, sway almost any election in the state of Texas.”

In a report this week, the National Education Association ranked Texas 36th among the states in per-pupil funding. It also said the average teacher salary in Texas is about $53,000 a year – well below the national average of more than $60,000.

Author- Mark Richardson – Texas News Service

More than Half of Texas Public School Students are in Districts Where Teacher Certification isn’t Required

More than half of Texas public school students are in districts that don’t require teachers to be certified, according to state officials, due to a recent law giving schools more freedom on educational requirements.

A 2015 law lets public schools access exemptions from requirements such as teacher certification, school start dates and class sizes — the same exemptions allowed for open enrollment charter schools. Using a District of Innovation plan, districts can create a comprehensive educational program and identify provisions under Texas law that would inhibit their goals.

Data from the Texas Education Agency found that 604 rural and urban districts with innovation plans have received an exemption from teacher certification so far. Texas Association of School Boards spokesperson Dax Gonzalez said most of those districts are using the exemption so industry specialists — such as engineers, nurses and law enforcement officials — can offer hands-on learning to students in career and technology classes.

But the move has some education experts worried that districts are laying the groundwork for having uncertified teachers handle core subjects like math, science and language arts, despite a promise not to do so. Although uncertified educators have been able to teach core classes through waivers and permits, those are approved on a case-by-case basis.

Usually, in order to teach in Texas classrooms, candidates must obtain certification by earning a bachelor’s degree from an accredited college or university, completing an educator preparation program, passing the appropriate teacher certification exams, being fingerprinted for a national criminal background check and submitting a state application.

In Harlingen Consolidated Independent School District, Tim Soto is one of eight uncertified teachers, all responsible for career and technology courses. The electronic technician was hired to teach classes on hands-on tool usage and safety and electrical field practices.

This is Soto’s first year as a teacher, but he has worked for Harlingen CISD for 26 years as an apprentice electrician and a technology specialist. Soto, a college graduate, said he “jumped at the chance” to to give back to the district. And, he said, he’s received nothing but support from other teachers and his students’ parents in creating his curriculum.

“I was nervous, but things just fell into place,” Soto said. “I’ve found that my years of experience are invaluable for students. Instead of having them just read out of a textbook, I can show them how to use the proper tools and help them avoid making mistakes as an apprentice.”

But districts aren’t required to limit the exemption to only career and technology courses. The blanket certification exemption legally allows them to hire uncertified teachers for staple classes like Algebra I or Biology, and even for special education or early childhood classes.

“We don’t want it to expand,” said Kate Kuhlmann, a lobbyist with the Association of Texas Professional Educators. “There are a lot of people that have great content knowledge, but it’s also really important they have a strong understanding of and training in what it means to be a teacher.”

Because there are already avenues around teacher certification — such as waivers and permits that have to be accepted by TEA, the commissioner of education or the school board — a broader exemption should not be necessary, said Texas State Teachers Association spokesperson Clay Robison. Robison called the innovation plan exemption a way for districts to “cut corners” without the same accountability.

Many states have responded to a national teacher shortage by allowing emergency-type hires, said Desiree Carver-Thomas, a research and policy associate with the Learning Policy Institute, a nonprofit research organization based in California. More than 100,000 teachers were unqualified based on their state’s certification standards, according to data between 2015 and 2017, Carver-Thomas said.

But Texas exemption standards are among the broadest nationally, Kuhlmann said. Many states just offer permits or waivers for districts that need to fill classrooms with uncertified teachers. And while states like Kansas and Alabama have innovation district models that offer a teacher certification exemption, Kuhlmann said they have built-in parameters for how many districts can qualify and what classes fall under the exemption.

Still, receiving a response for case-by-case applications in Texas can take nearly a month, and there’s always the possibility of being rejected. And unlike the permit or waiver process, choosing exemptions under a District of Innovation plan involves community input, two-thirds buy-in from the district’s board of trustees and approval from a district-level decision-making committee, said Bruce Gearing, Dripping Springs ISD’s superintendent.

Gearing said he doesn’t foresee his district hiring uncertified teachers outside of career and technical education. Even if that need arises, he said, the district would have to go through a public amendment process to change the implementation of the teacher certification exemption.

“It’s about trust,” Gonzalez, the TASB spokesperson, said. “You either trust local school boards and administrations to go out and find the best teachers for students, or you don’t. And again, this exemption just allows a flexibility that charter schools already have.”

The Texas State Teachers Association, the Association of Texas Professional Educators and the Texas Association of School Boards have been financial supporters of The Texas Tribune, a nonprofit, nonpartisan news organization that is funded in part by donations from members, foundations and corporate sponsors. Financial supporters play no role in the Tribune’s journalism. Find a complete list of them here.

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Author: RISHIKA DUGYALA – The Texas Tribune

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